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These are nicknames, like Ethelred the Unready or Charles the Bald. They are called adana and take the pattern of descriptive followed by (usually) the zokumyô, or (rarely) the nanori (e.g., Nossori Saburô, or Plodding Saburô; see the section on given names below for explanations on these name styles).In such cases, the man in question would be called Nossori Saburô or Saburô, but never simply Nossori.The first thing that needs to be remembered about Japanese names is that the surname comes first.The first Ashikaga shôgun, Takauji, was thus Ashikaga Takauji, not Takauji Ashikaga, despite the order sometimes given his name in many Western books.It is a modern oddity that even today the names of Japanese, when appearing in English, are often reversed and written in the correct order when using kanji.
Those appointed governors of provinces would insert their title between sur- and given names.
These are names the Japanese can relate to; they have a meaning in our lingua franca, English.
Even names like Anthony, Charles, and Edmund have meanings; it is just that they are lost on most people who dont know the original languages of the names and their original forms. Even ancient names have meanings that can be understood if one knows the original language. Just as a girl named Rose is not a flower, a man named Takeshi need not be brave, nor would a woman named O-gin actually be made of silver.
Some publishing houses maintain the multiple-personality disorder of keeping in original order historical names (i.e., people before the Meiji Restoration of 1868), and reversing to Western order those post-dating the Restoration.
This is an unsatisfactory solution, as it does not address how to deal with era-bridging figures such as Itagaki or Saigô Takamori.